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Term Definition

A term used to describe evidence that may be considered by a jury or judge in civil and criminal cases.


A written or printed statement made under oath.


In the practice of the court of appeals, it means that the court of appeals has concluded that the lower court decision is correct and will stand as rendered by the lower court.

Age Discrimination

Ageism, or age discrimination is stereotyping and discriminating against individuals or groups because of their age. It is a set of beliefs, attitudes, norms, and values used to justify age based prejudice, discrimination, and subordination.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) prohibits discrimination and retaliation against persons over forty years old on the basis of their age.

Alternate juror

A juror selected in the same manner as a regular juror who hears all the evidence but does not help decide the case unless called on to replace a regular juror.

Alternative Dispute Resolution

A procedure for settling a dispute outside the courtroom. Most forms of ADR are not binding, and involve referral of the case to a neutral party such as an arbitrator or mediator.

Americans With Disabilities Act

The Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against individuals on the basis of physical or mental disability and requires employers to reasonably accommodate qualified disabled employees.


The formal written statement by a defendant in a civil case that responds to a complaint, articulating the grounds for defense.


A request made after a trial by a party that has lost on one or more issues that a higher court review the decision to determine if it was correct. To make such a request is "to appeal" or "to take an appeal." One who appeals is called the "appellant;" the other party is the "appellee."


The party who appeals a lower court's decision, usually seeking reversal of that decision.


About appeals; an appellate court has the power to review the judgment of a lower court (trial court) or tribunal.


The party who opposes an appellant's appeal, and who seeks to persuade the appeals court to affirm the lower court's decision.

Article I, Section 8

Article I, Section 8 of the California Constitution reads that a person may not be disqualified from entering or pursuing a business, profession, vocation, or employment because of sex, race, creed, color, or national or ethnic origin. In addition, cases interpreting Article I, Section 8, have held that pregnancy discrimination is a form of sex discrimination prohibited by the California Constitution.

At-Will Employment

At-will employment is a doctrine of American law that defines an employment relationship in which either party can immediately terminate the relationship at any time with or without any advance warning, and with no subsequent liability, provided there was no express contract for a definite term governing the employment relationship and that the employer does not belong to a collective bargaining group.